Land and Cultural Survival The Communal Land Rights of Indigenous Peoples in Asia

Introduction - Jayantha Perera

Over 900 million people in the world are the poorest of the poor. At least one-third of them are indigenous peoples, and more than half of them live in Asia. Social indicators such as life expectancy, maternal mortality, nutrition, education, and health show that they are the poorest. They do not have sufficient land to gather or grow food or to raise livestock. They have few opportunities to learn new skills, obtain medical care, or improve their livelihood. They also find it difficult to influence national policies, laws, and institutions that could improve their life chances and shape their collective future. As a result, most indigenous peoples have been socially, politically, and economically marginalized, endangering their survival in a rapidly changing environment.

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Tenure Security, Livelihoods And Sustainable Land Use in Southern Africa

INTRODUCTION

Land tenure may be defined as the terms and conditions under which land is held, used and transacted. Land tenure reform is a planned change in the terms and conditions: e.g. an adjustment in the terms of contracts between landowners and sharecroppers; the conversion of informal tenancy into formal property rights; the establishment of local committees to organise and supervise the use of common rights.

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Land Tenure Reform and Rural Livelihoods In Southern Africa

This paper reviews land tenure reform on communal land against the background of the repossession of private land occupied by white settlers. The purpose and scope of the proposed tenure reform in the former homelands of South Africa are described, as well as the attempts by South Africa’s neighbours to resolve tenure problems in the Communal Areas.

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Churia Conservation, Livelihood and Land Rights: Unravelling the Complexities

Executive Summary

Churia of Nepal generally suffers from degradation (natural and anthropogenic) and over exploitation. These problems are more tricky and complex, than they appear. Loss of biomass and biodiversity, reduced crown coverage of the forest, flash floods, sedimentation and desertification of agricultural land in Bhabar and Terai, flooding of settlements, loss of lives of people and animals, landlessness and ownership problems, limited sources of livelihood, and further deprivation of the people, are some of the manifestations of those problems.

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Conservation, Land Rights and Livelihoods in the Tarangire Ecosystem of Tanzania

Executive Summary

For millennia, pastoralists have shared landscapes with wildlife throughout Africa (Pilgram, Siiriäinen et al. 1990; Homewood and Rodgers 1991; Little, Dyson-Hudson et al. 1999). Throughout the 20th century, this co-existence has been in decline as conservation policy excluded people and livestock from protected areas, and demographic growth and expanding agriculture excluded wildlife use (Ellis and Swift 1988; Pagiola, Kellenberg et al. 1998; Homewood, Lambin et al. 2001; Serneels and Lambin 2001). Concurrently, many pastoral systems across the globe, including those of Maasai pastoralists in Tanzania, are believed to be in decline and under unprecedented pressure to diversify livestock based economies.

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